Waves predominantly from NE, ENE and E during NE Monsoon and S, SSE, SE, SW and SSW during SW Monsoon approach the Port Site. From the monthly distribution of wave frequency, it is observed that four months of the year waves are from the NE Quadrant and the other eight months waves are from Southern Quadrant.
The Tidal current along the Karaikal coast is 0.5 knots or 0.25 m/s. The wind driven current due to the wind drift corresponding to a wind speed of 50 m/s during cyclonic conditions would be 1.5 m/s. In addition to the above two currents, piling up of water against the coast during the passage of cyclonic storm causes the sea surface to slope upwards towards the coast, which produces a slope current.
Tides in these areas are semi diurnal with two highs and two lows during the day. The tide levels during spring and neap tides of Karaikal coast are given below:-
- Highest High Water Spring (HHWS) – + 1.18m CD
- Mean High Water Spring (MHWS) – + 0.65m CD
- Mean High Water Neap (MHWN) – + 0.47m CD
- Mean Sea Level (MSL) – + 0.34m CD
- Mean Low Water Neap (MLWN) – + 0.20m CD
- Mean Low Water Spring (MLWS) – + 0.03m CD
- Chart Datum – 0.00
- The simulated storm surge along the Karaikal coast is 1.0m waves